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Religions and Beliefs

Religions and Beliefs

Last updated by elysees at 2017/3/21

Buddha statues in China

Buddhism was introduced to China during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), during a time of great economic, political and cultural instability. With their economy struggling and their ethnic groups divided against each other, many Chinese people of all different social rankings embraced Buddhism as an alternative to a way of life that seemed to be crumbling before their eyes. With the spread of Buddhism, Buddhist art, particularly Buddha statues, flourished throughout ancient China. Buddha statues varied in figure and subject depending on the dynasty in which they were produced.

the statue of sakyamuni, plated with gold and bronze produced in taihe reign of northern wei dynasty?77-499?/strong>

After more than 370 years of turbulence in the Northern and Southern dynasties (420-581), ancient China was united again under the Sui Dynasty (581-618), and then Chinese feudal dynasties reached their peak during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Buddhism, as a spiritual belief of some people that time, had gradually taken root in ancient Chinese people daily lives. The art of the Buddha statues rapidly developed from those of the Northern and Southern dynasties. The statues, whether made of bronze, stone or clay, vividly displayed the majesty of the Buddha, the benevolence of the Bodhisattva and the compliance of the arhat.

The statue of Kuan-yin (a Bodhisattva) of the Song Dynasty?60-1279?Made from blue and white porcelain Excavated in Fengtai District, Beijing

Under the influence of Zen Buddhist ideas, the holy and idealized qualities of the Buddha statues began to lose emphasis during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). The statues of the Buddha and Bodhisattva were replaced by more secularized arhat statues. This change put more human feelings into the statues, them look more like humans than gods, which played a positive role in the spread of Buddhism.

The Buddha statues of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) were unique for the statues?ces, figures, postures, costumes and lotus thrones (the Buddha seat, in the form of a lotus flower).

The stone statue of Sakyamuni Liao Dynasty (916-1125)

During the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911), as the number of large-scaled grottos carved for Buddha statues dwindled over time, more and more temples emerged for enshrining Buddha statues.

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Madhyamaka Buddhist Philosophy

Madhyamaka and Yogcra are the two main philosophical trajectories associated with the Mahyna stream of Buddhist thought. According to Tibetan doxographical literature, Madhyamaka represents the philosophically definitive expression of Buddhist doctrine. Stemming from the second-century writings of Ngrjuna, Madhyamaka developed in the form of commentaries on his works. This style of development is characteristic of the basically scholastic character of the Indian philosophical tradition. The commentaries elaborated not only varying interpretations ofNgrjunas philosophybut also different understandings of the philosophical tools that are appropriate to its advancement. Tibetan interpreters generally claim to take the seventh-century commentaries of Candrakrti as authoritative, but Indian commentators subsequent to him were in ct more influential in the course of Indian philosophy. Madhyamaka also had considerable influence (though by way of a rather different set of texts) in East Asian Buddhism, where a characteristic interpretive concern has been to harmonize Madhyamaka and Yogcra. Although perhaps most frequently characterized by modern interpreters as a Buddhist version of skepticism, Madhyamaka arguably develops metaphysical concerns. The logically elusive character of Madhyamaka arguments has scinated and perplexed generations of scholars. This is surely appropriate with regard to a school whose principal term of art, emptiness (śnyat), reflects developments in Buddhist thought from the high scholasticism of Tibet to the enigmatic discourse of East Asian Zen.

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Buddhism vs Islam

Buddhism vs. Islam




On the surce,BuddhismandIslamhave more differences than similarities in their philosophies. While Islam is a monotheistic religion that believes in worshiping an almighty God, Buddhism rejects the notion of a creatorGodbut does honor enlightened beings as deities.

Buddhism preachesvegetarianismand shunning alcohol and drugs. Islam also bans alcohol but does not preach vegetarianism.

A Buddhist who takes a spiritual refuge outside the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha is not considered a Buddhist. S/he may study and learn from other religions, but to consider another teaching and to honour someone outside the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha (collectively called the Sasana) as equal to or higher than the Sasana makes him/her a non Buddhist.

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From the Magazine.Issue 2015

In October, 2014, Nyima Dorjee Rinpoche, abbot of Palden Ningye Monastery, set off on a journey to what Tibetans call Handi, which loosely translates into the Han ethnic land. He was on a sacred mission to visit Mount Wutai in Shanxi Province.

China has four sacred mountains in Buddhism, but Mount Wutai is the most celebrated. It was a particularly special destination for Nyima Rinpoche because it is the Seat of Awakening for Manjusri, a bodhisattva of wisdom, who Nyima believes was reincarnated as his mentor. For this well-traveled, 38-year-old monk, the site is one of many pilgrimages on the quest for ultimate wisdom. He felt a sense of accomplishment and exhilaration when he encountered the valley filled with monasteries. Marshalling the utmost respect, Nyima performed his sutras and carefully groomed himself before entering the mountains.

From there, things started to go horribly wrong. In a particularly grand monastery, he saw two monks sitting with their feet resting on the chairs, like two bosses, he says. He asked which monastery was the most ancient; they didnt know. He inquired about the differences between Han and Tibetan Buddhism; they didnt know. Nyima asked if they were converted; they merely showed Nyima their conversion certificates, which they kept in their chest pockets. As to the real meaning of conversion (), they were clueless.

They knew nothing! Nyima exclaims. Conversion is not about s, its about here. He laid his palm on his chest. These temples are magnificent, but there was no Buddha, or Buddhas Way, in them. They are hollow.

Nyima left Mount Wutai disillusioned and saddened. This is what happens in the Downll Era of Buddhism.

The Downll Era of Buddhism () is often cited as the reason for the ills of Buddhism in our modern times. Before he attained nirvana, Buddha predicted the downll of his own religion in three phases, the first being the first thousand years of thriving, a second thousand years of reflection on the first phase, and the third millennium being the downll.

In China, at times, it looks particularly lost. For many Chinese people, the traditional image of a Buddhist monk is someone next to a saint: thin, dignified, and a trusted guide on spiritual mattersperhaps even a psychic with supernatural powers. But, most of all, they should neither have nor want money. This romanticized image causes all the more antipathy toward the modern Chinese Buddhist monks of reality.

For an ordinary pilgrim, one needs to be quite well-off to visit a monastery. Most temples charge an entrance fee, and a lot of them are high enough to bar most pilgrims from regular entry. You can find a donation box by every gate of every hall. When you enter a monastery, you are usually coerced into buying a candle or putting your mily name down for a ceremony, with monks offering guarantees of good luck and fortune.

Meanwhile, as China gets richer, Buddhisms patrons give more and more generous offerings. In some wealthy monasteries, abbots can be seen driving a BMW, Audi, or even a Porsche often gifts from wealthy patrons with now assuredly spectacular karma. Shi Yongxin (), abbot ofShaolin Monasteryand possibly the most well-known monk in China, is commonly called the CEO of Shaolin because he started over ten companies under Shaolins name. For some, the death of the romantic ideal has caused a loss in ith, and for many others, the perception of Buddhism has changed to one of greedy monks, expensive incense, and tourist hotspots.

If, indeed, this is the millennium of the downll, how did it come about? Gao Xiang, a member of the Beijing Buddhist Association and a well-known Weibo celebrity for his Buddhism advocacy, believes it is the cost of the modern world. Its not that monasteries want themselves to be commercializedthey have to. They are forced to. A long history of Buddhism in flux has led to Xiangs view, a view many share.

Although Chinese history is littered with attempts to ban Buddhism outright, none were as thoroughly destructive as the Cultural Revolution. With the exception of a few monasteries of unsurpassed historical value, most temples were converted or turned to rubble. Before 1949, Beijing had over 700 hundred monasteries within the second ring road; now there are only 20. When the 1990s came, such problems ceased. It was the decade when Deng Xiaoping mously advocated the slogan, Everything should be centered around economic development. A new passion for money filled China with energy and anxiety, and everything that could make money was considered good. Just when Buddhism was staggering into recovery, money presented a new hurdle.

Tourism, which barely existed previously, became all the rage. Han Buddhism, especially its Chan (knownin Japan as Zen) branch, has a tradition of seclusion and hermitages, keeping the practice as r away from the hurly-burly as possible with monasteries hidden in remote mountain areas. However, with these mountains developed intojingqu(, commercial scenic areas), monasteries are trapped in the center, with tourist buses flocking to their gates on newly built roads. After the Cultural Revolution, the monasteries were never really handed back to the monks. Temples fell under the jurisdiction of three government departments: the Tourism Bureau (), the Landscape and Forestry Bureau (), and the Cultural Heritage Bureau (). The first thing those bureaus did was begin to charge entrance fees.

Abbot Haixin, vice president of Shanxi Buddhism Association, was a new monk when the news broke that Mount Wutai was going to charge a fee of 0.2 RMB in the 1980s. We were filled with incredulity and anger. To make money out of Buddha! What kind of karma would that bring? Unthinkable. We fiercely protested, but to no avail.

Things got worse from there. Today, fees for some Chinese temples and monasteries can be prohibitively high for some, leaving embittered pilgrims. The entrance fee to Mount Wutai in Shanxi Province is 238 RMB, Shaolin Monastery in Henan Province charges 100 RMB, and Nanshan Monastery in Hainan Province costs 170 RMB, to name just a few.

While most blame the greedy monasteries, few are aware of the ct that most monks and nuns are against it and have petitioned to lift the fees at every National Buddhist Convention. Shi Yongxin has been petitioning the central government to lift the fee for over ten years because it blocks the over 1,000-year-old pilgrimage path and bars pilgrims. He has had no success. Seventy percent of the Shaolin Monasterys fees go to the local government and the developer, but to be ir, the city that hosts Shaolin Monastery is struggling financially. The ten million RMB annual revenue from Shaolin is simply too much to give up. Similarly, in 2014, seven monasteries in Jizushan Mountain, Yunnan Province collectively closed their gates to visitors in protest against the tourism developers intention to charge an entrance fee. Thanks to the media attention, they succeeded.

If the entrance fee is lifted, who will suffer most? Gao Xiang points out. Not the monasteries. Monasteries will only be better if these fees are removed. Its these three government sectors who have benefited from it the most.

Its not about money, its about peoples hearts, says Abbot Haixin, frowning and shaking his head anxiously. It is giving out one message: if you are poor, you are not allowed to pay your homage to Buddha. It is an unwritten insult to those who cannot afford it. Its no longer about 238 RMB, but about discrimination and disrespecting people.

The abbot, still shaking his head, continues: Did the government build the mountain? Did it build the monastery? If not, no one has a right to charge a fee. We have focused so much on economic development that we are ignoring spiritual and religious things. Buddhism is supposed to save peoples hearts, but look what it has become.

Stay tuned for the second part of the cover story fromThe Buddhism issue.

After reading this article, I have got just one feeling: gloomy about the Chinese. I am Chinese, and I love Buddhism. My mother and her parents believe in Buddhism too. However, I dont appreciate the Buddhism in China but the original one told of from the Lord Buddha, who thinks everyone including animals and plants is equal. One mous scholar Qian Zhongshu () said: Any good stuff from outside China cannot be unchanged if it is introduced to China. in his renowned novel City Besieged . I think this is one of the so called remarkable changes made by the Chinese. Buddhism has been seriously ruined inside China by many Buddhism controllers and authorities. I can just say: Let it be this way! If you dont, you will be considered a freak for sure.

This says a lot about the mentality of the Chinese people. They put money ahead of the soul of refinement.